MALARIA DAN KEHAMILAN DENGAN ANEMIA (LITERATURE REVIEW)

  • Raden Roro Arum Ariasih Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta
  • Meiwita Budiharsana Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: Malaria; Kehamilan; Anemia

Abstract

Malaria pada kehamilan masih menjadi masalah serius di negara-negara berkembang tropis dan sub tropis karena menyumbang lebih dari 10.000 kematian ibu dan 200.000 kematian neonatal per tahun. Tujuan dari telaah pustaka ini adalah untuk menyajikan besaran prevalensi, dampak, dan faktor-faktor terkait kejadian malaria dan kehamilan serta penanganannya di berbagai negara endemic dunia. Metode pengumpulan jurnal menggunakan Proquest, Scopus, JSTOR, dan google scholar keluaran tahun 2014 sampai 2020 sebanyak 22 artikel. Hasil telaah pustaka menunjukkan kisaran prevalensi malaria pada kehamilan sangat besar, 4,2%-59,3%. Faktor terkait adalah karakteristik ibu, kondisi kehamilan, pengetahuan, penggunaan kelambu tidur, kondisi lingkungan rumah, kepemilikan buku dan kunjungan ANC (Ante Natal Care), keberadaan praktik bidan, dan keteraturan minum obat. Dampak malaria dalam kehamilan dengan anemia cukup berisiko dan bisa berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas dan morbiditas ibu serta janinmya. Ibu hamil dengan malaria mempunyai resiko OR (Odds Ratio) 1,94-2,4 kali mengalami anemia dan pada ibu hamil dengan komplikasi malaria (malaria plasenta) mempunyai resiko mencapai 41,6 kali. Sebenarnya, jika kita mengetahui bahwa prevalensi anemia pada ibu hamil dengan malaria dapat mencapai 5,1%-56,3%, seharusnya upaya preventif dengan strategi pencegahan malaria sudah dilakukan sejak awal kehamilan melalui surveilan dan skrining pada ibu hamil.  Diharapkan, baik ibu hamil dan keluarganya, maupun tenaga kesehatan (dokter dan bidan) yang menangani, mampu mempromosikan pencegahan malaria pada ibu hamil.  Hal ini akan menurunkan kejadian anemia pada kehamilan, selain meningkatkan upaya preventif kesehatan lingkungan.

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Published
2021-01-17