DETERMINAN SOSIAL DEMOGRAFI KELAHIRAN RISIKO TINGGI: ANALISIS DATA SURVEI DEMOGRAFI DAN KESEHATAN INDONESIA TAHUN 2017

  • Risma Mulia Universitas Indonesia
  • Budi Utomo Universitas Indonesia
  • Vernonia Yora Saki Institut Sains dan Teknologi Alkamal
  • Sukma Rahayu Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: kelahiran; kontrasepsi; paritas; risiko; tinggi; wilayah

Abstract

Kelahiran risiko tinggi menjadi penyebab utama kematian ibu dan anak. Tren kelahiran risiko tinggi di Indonesia masih stagnan sebesar 29% selama periode 2012-2017. Tujuan Penelitian untuk mengetahui faktor sosial demografi yang berpengaruh pada kelahiran risiko tinggi di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder dari Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI) 2017 dengan desain penelitian potong lintang. Subyek penelitian adalah kelahiran terakhir dalam lima tahun sebelum survei sebesar 14.421 kelahiran. Variabel independen adalah umur melahirkan, paritas, tempat tinggal, wilayah, pendidikan ibu dan suami, status kerja ibu, kekayaan, riwayat kontrasepsi dan pakai kontrasepsi saat ini. Variabel dependen adalah kelahiran risiko tinggi yaitu irisan salah satu kriteria 4 terlalu dan kehamilan tidak diinginkan. Analisis data menggunakan regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 25,38% merupakan kelahiran risiko tinggi. Kelahiran risiko tinggi lebih cenderung terjadi di perdesaan (28%), berada di luar Jawa Bali II (35%), umur melahirkan berisiko ≤20 atau ≥40 tahun (42%), paritas ≥4 (87%), pendidikan ibu dan suami SLTP kebawah (33%; 31%), tidak bekerja (26%), status ekonomi sangat miskin (37%), riwayat tidak KB (28%), dan tidak pakai KB saat ini (28%). Analisis multivariabel menunjukkan bahwa paritas ≥4 (OR=11.58; 95% CI= 9.81-13.67), wilayah luar Jawa Bali II (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.31-1.72), umur berisiko melahirkan terakhir (OR=2.69; 95% CI=2.42-2.99), bekerja (OR=.78; 95% CI=.71-.86), status ekonomi sangat miskin (OR=1.74; 95% CI=1.46-2.07), dan tidak pakai KB saat ini (OR=1.22; 95% CI=1.08-1.38), tidak pernah KB (OR=.80; 95% CI=.66-.98) berhubungan signifikan dengan kelahiran risiko tinggi di Indonesia. Program Keluarga Berencana berkontribusi secara langsung mencegah prevalensi kelahiran risiko tinggi. Pemerintah diharapkan meningkatkan akses informasi, layanan dan metode KB yang berkualitas dan menjangkau seluruh wilayah. Pemberdayaan perempuan melalui pendidikan dan kegiatan ekonomi.

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Published
2021-01-17